Backed By Scientific Studies: What That Means & Why It’s Important

The list of scientific studies at the end of this page won’t mean much to you (and you certainly don’t have to read that list for my program to work).

But they are important – they are what separates “The Essential Guide to Building Muscle” from the vast majority of other muscle building and weight gain books available to you.

Think About This Real-World Example

Let’s say you read in a book that “eating every 3 hours is essential to building muscle”.

You’d expect the author to give a reason why that was the case. And they usually do. They give you their theory, their rationale, for why eating so frequently is essential and it will typically be a “scientific” explanation that invloves how our metabolisms work.

But no matter what their theory and no matter how convincing they sound, the ONLY way you can trust that piece of advice is if it’s been meticulously tested in credible, unbiased scientific studies.

Whenever I make a claim or recommendation in “The Essential Guide to Building Muscle” I put at least one number in brackets after it, like this [1]. Those numbers relate to a list of studies at the end of the book that back up my recommendations.

Now, if you were so inclined you could go and look up each study online at a site like to double check I haven’t just made it up.

Hopefully, you can take a lot of confidence that this program really will work for you. Not because I say it will. Not because I’ve convinced you with clever marketing and hyped-up claims. But because all the principles have been thoroughly proven to work!

Scientific Studies Used To Back Up The Essential Guide To Building Muscle

These are the scientific studies I used to create the program…

1. Wilmore JH and Costil DL. (2004). Physiology of Sport And Exercise, Third Ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois

2. McArdle WD, Katch FI and Katch VL. (2000). Essentials of Exercise Physiology, Second Ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois

3. Food Standards Agency.

4. Staron, R.S., Leonardi, M.J., Karapondo, D.L., Malicky, E.S., Falkel, J.E., Hagerman, F.C., & Hikida, R.S. (1991). Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in heavy-resistance-trained women after detraining and retraining. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70, 631-640

5. De Lorenzo, A., Bertini, I., Candeloro, N., Piccinelli, R., Innocente, I., & Brancati, A. (1999). A new predictive equation to calculate resting metabolic rate in athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39, 213-219

6. Kreider, R.B., Ferreira, M., Wilson, M., Grindstaff, P., Plisk, S., Reinardy, J., Cantler, E., & Almada, A.L. (1998). Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 73-82

16. Tipton, K.D., Elliott, T.A., Cree, M.G., Aarsland, A.A., Sanford, A.P., & Wolfe, R.R. (2007). Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise. American Journal of Physiology, 292, E71-E76

17. Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, Wolfe RR (2001). Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281: E197�E206

18. Holt, S.H.A., Brand-Miller, J.C., Petocz, P., & Farmakalidis, E. (1995). A satiety index of common foods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 49, 675-690

19. Tieken SM, Leidy HJ, Stull AJ, Mattes RD, Schuster RA, Campbell WW (2007). Effects of solid versus liquid meal-replacement products of similar energy content on hunger, satiety, and appetite-regulating hormones in older adults. Horm Metab Res. 2007 May;39(5):389-94.

20. Gray, R., French, S., Robinson, T., & Yeomans, M. (2002). Dissociation of the effects of preload volume and energy content on subjective appetite and food intake. Physiology and Behavior, 76, 57-64

21. Gray RW, French SJ, Robinson TM, Yeomans MR. Increasing preload volume with water reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal. Nutr Neurosci. Feb;6(1):29-37.

22. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). The National Academies Press.

23. Layman, D.K., Boileau, R.A., Erickson, D.J., Painter, J.E., Shiue, H., Sather, C., & Christou, D.D. (2003). A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 411-417

24. Layman, D.K., Shiue, H., Sather, C., Erickson, D.J., & Baum, J. (2003). Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 405-410

25. Due, A., Toubro, S., Skov, A.R., & Astrup, A. (2004). Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. International Journal of Obesity, 28, 1283-1290.

26. Lemon, P.W., & Mullin, J.P. (1980). Effect of initial muscle glycogen levels on protein catabolism during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 48, 624-629

27. Lemon, P.W., Dolny, D.G., & Yarasheski, K.E. (1997). Moderate physical activity can increase dietary protein needs. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 22, 494-503

28. Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, MacDougall JD, Chesley A, Phillips S, Schwarcz HP. (1992). Evaluation of protein requirements for trained strength athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 73, 1986-1995

29. Lemon, P.W.R. (1998). Effects of exercise on dietary protein requirements. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 8, 426-447

30. Hartman, J.W., Moore, D.R., & Phillips, S.M. (2006). Resistance training reduces whole-body protein turnover and improves net protein retention in untrained young males. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 31, 557-564

31. Moore, D.R., Del Bel, N.C., Nizi, K.I., Hartman, J.W., Tang, J.E., Armstrong, D., & Phillips, S.M. (2007). Resistance training reduces fasted- and fed-state leucine turnover and increases dietary nitrogen retention in previously untrained young men. Journal of Nutrition, 137, 985-991

32. Rozenek, R., Ward, P., Long, S., & Garhammer, J. (2002). Effects of high-calorie supplements on body composition and muscular strength following resistance training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 340-347

33. Candow, D.G., Burke, N.C., Smith-Palmer, T., & Burke, D.G. (2006). Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16, 233-244

34. Cribb, P.J., Williams, A.D., Stathis, C.G., Carey, M.F., & Hayes, A. (2007). Effects of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 298-307

35. Burke, D.G., Chilibeck, P.D., Davidson, K.S., Candow, D.G., Farthing, J., & Smith-Palmer, T. (2001). The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 11, 349-364

36. Knight EL, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, Curhan GC (2003). The impact of protein intake on renal function decline in women with normal renal function or mild renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med. Mar 18;138(6):460-7.

37. Poortmans, J.R. & Dellalieux, O. (2000). Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes? International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 10, 28-38

38. Skov, A.R., Toubro, S., Bulow, J., Krabbe, K., Parving, H.H., Astrup, A. (1999). Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23, 1170-1177

39. Cordain, L., Eaton, S.B., Miller, J.B., Mann, N., & Hill, K. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, S42-S52

40. Cordain, L., Miller, J.B., Eaton, S.B., Mann, N., Holt, S.H., & Speth, J.D. (2000). Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 682-692

41. Wolfe, B.M. (1995). Potential role of raising dietary protein intake for reducing risk of atherosclerosis. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 11, 127G-131G

42. Wolfe, B.M., & Piche, L.A. (1999). Replacement of carbohydrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 22, 140-148

43. Hu, F.B., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E., Rimm, E., Colditz, G.A., Speizer, F.E., Hennekens, C.H., & Willett, W.C. (1999). Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 221-227

44 Arnal, M.A., Mosoni, L., Boirie, Y., Houlier, M.L., Morin, L., Verdier, E., Ritz, P., Antoine, J.M., Prugnaud, .J, Beaufrere, B., & Mirand, P.P. (1999). Protein pulse feeding improves protein retention in elderly women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 1202-1208

45. Arnal, M.A., Mosoni, L., Boirie, Y., Houlier, M.L., Morin, L., Verdier, E., Ritz, P., Antoine, J.M., Prugnaud, J., Beaufrere, B., & Mirand, P.P. (2000). Protein feeding pattern does not affect protein retention in young women. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 1700-1704

46. Levenhagen, D.K., Gresham, J.D., Carlson, M.G., Maron, D.J., Borel, M.J., & Flakoll, P.J. (2001). Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis. American Journal of Physiology, E280, 982-993

47. Borsheim, E., Cree, M.G., Tipton, K.D., Elliott, T.A., Aarsland, A., & Wolfe, R.R. (2004). Effect of carbohydrate intake on net muscle protein synthesis during recovery from resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 674-678

48. Thyfault, J.P., Carper, M.J., Richmond, S.R., Hulver, M.W., & Potteiger, J.A. (2004). Effects of liquid carbohydrate ingestion on markers of anabolism following high-intensity resistance exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18, 174-179

49. Bilsborough S, Mann N (2006). A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Apr;16(2):129-52.

50. Hamalainen, E., Adlercreutz, H., Puska, P., & Pietinen, P. (1984). Diet and serum sex hormones in healthy men. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 20, 459-464

51. Volek, J.S., Kraemer, W.J., Bush, J.A., Incledon, T., & Boetes, M. (1996). Testosterone and cortisol in relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82, 49-54

52. Levenhagen, D.K., Carr, C., Carlson, M.G., Maron, D.J., Borel, M.J., & Flakoll, P.J. (2002). Postexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 828-837

53. Doi, T., Matsuo, T., Sugawara, M., Matsumoto, K., Minehira, K., Hamada, K., Okamura, K., & Suzuki, M. (2001). New approach for weight reduction by a combination of diet, light resistance exercise and the timing of ingesting a protein supplement. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 10, 226-232

54. Flakoll, P.J., Judy, T., Flinn, K., Carr, C., & Flinn, S. (2004). Postexercise protein supplementation improves health and muscle soreness during basic military training in Marine recruits. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 951-956

55. Bennet WM, Connacher AA, Scrimgeour CM, Smith K, Rennie MJ (1989). Increase in anterior tibialis muscle protein synthesis in healthy man during mixed amino acid infusion: studies of incorporation of [1-13C]leucine. Clinical Science 76, 447-454

56. Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S, Wolf RR (1997). An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. American Journal of Physiology 273, E122-129

57. Smith K, Reynolds N, Downie S, Patel A, Rennie MJ (1998). Effects of flooding amino acids on incorporation of labeled amino acids into human muscle protein. American Journal of Physiology 275, E73-78

58. Tipton, K.D., Elliott, T.A., Cree, M.G., Wolf, S.E., Sanford, A.P., & Wolfe, R.R. (2004). Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 2073-2081

59. Wilkinson, S.B., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Macdonald, M.J., Macdonald, J.R., Armstrong, D., & Phillips, S.M. (2007). Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 1031-1040

60. Hartman, J.W., Tang, J.E., Wilkinson, S.B., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Lawrence, R.L., Fullerton, A.V., & Phillips, S.M. (2007). Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86, 373-381

61. Ivy, J.L., Goforth, H.W. Jr., Damon, B.M., McCauley, T.R., Parsons, E.C., & Price, T.B. (2002). Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93, 1337-1344

62. Tarnopolsky, M.A., Bosman, M., MacDonald, J.R., Vandeputte, D., Martin, J., & Roy, B.D. (1997). Postexercise protein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate supplements increase muscle glycogen in men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83, 1877-1883

63. Haff, G.G., Lehmkuhl, M.J., McCoy, L.B., & Stone, M.H. (2003). Carbohydrate supplementation and resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17, 187-196

64. Ivy JL (2001) Dietary strategies to promote glycogen synthesis after exercise. Can J Appl Physiol 2001 26 Suppl S236-45

65. Wojcik, J.R., Walber-Rankin, J., Smith, L.L., & Gwazdauskas, F.C. (2001). Comparison of carbohydrate and milk-based beverages on muscle damage and glycogen following exercise. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 11, 406-419

66. University of Maryland Medical enter. 2007.

67. Couet C, Delarue J, Ritz P, Antoine JM, Lamisse F (1997). Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults. International Journal of Obesity, 21, 637-643

68. Huffman DM, Michaelson JL, Thomas TR (2004). Chronic supplementation with fish oil increases fat oxidation during exercise in young men. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 7, 48-56


70. Tremblay, A., & St-Pierre, S. (1996). The hyperphagic effect of a high-fat diet and alcohol intake persists after control for energy density. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, 479-482

71. Buemann, B., Toubro, S., & Astrup, A. (2002). The effect of wine or beer versus a carbonated soft drink, served at a meal, on ad libitum energy intake. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 1367-1372

72. Siler, S.Q., Neese, R.A., & Hellerstein, M.K. (1999). De novo lipogenesis, lipid kinetics, and whole-body lipid balances in humans after acute alcohol consumption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 928-936.

73. Raben A, Agerholm-Larsen L, Flint A, Holst JJ, Astrup A. (2003). Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 91-100.

74. Kvist, H., Hallgren, P., Jonsson, L., Pettersson, P., Sjoberg, C., Sjostrom, L., & Bjorntorp, P. (1993). Distribution of adipose tissue and muscle mass in alcoholic men. Metabolism, 42, 569-573

75. Kleiner, S.M. (1999). Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99, 200-206 10. Vom Dahl, S., Hallbrucker, C., Lang, F., Gerok, W., & Haussinger, D. (1991). Regulation of liver cell volume and proteolysis by glucagon and insulin. Biochemical Journal, 278, 771-777

76. Bilz, S., Ninnis, R., & Keller, U. (1999). Effects of hypoosmolality on whole-body lipolysis in man. Metabolism, 48, 472-476

77. Haussinger, D., Roth, E., Lang, F., & Gerok, W. (1993). Cellular hydration state: an important determinant of protein catabolism in health and disease. Lancet, 341, 1330-1332

78. Berneis, K., Ninnis, R., Haussinger, D., & Keller, U. (1999). Effects of hyper- and hypoosmolality on whole body protein and glucose kinetics in humans. American Journal of Physiology, 276, 188-195

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100. Hansen, S., Kvorning, T., Kjaer, M., & Sjogaard, G. (2001). The effect of short-term strength training on human skeletal muscle: the importance of physiologically elevated hormone levels. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 11, 347-354

101. McCarthy, J.P., Pozniak, M.A., & Agre, J.C. (2002). Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent strength and endurance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 16, 152-156

102. Dolezal, B.A., & Potteiger, J.A. (1998). Concurrent resistance and endurance training influence basal metabolic rate in nondieting individuals. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85, 695-700

103. H�kkinen, K., Alen, M., Kraemer, W.J., Gorostiaga, E., Izquierdo, M., Rusko, H., Mikkola, J., H�kkinen, A., Valkeinen, H., Kaarakainen, E., Romu, S., Erola, V., Ahtiainen, J., & Paavolainen, L. (2003). Neuromuscular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training versus strength training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 89, 42-52

104. McCarthy, J.P., Agre, J.C., Graf, B.K., Pozniak, M.A., & Vailas, A.C. (1995). Compatibility of adaptive responses with combining strength and endurance training. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 27, 429-436