Backed By Scientific Studies:
What That Means & Why It's Important
The list of scientific studies at the end of this page won't mean much to you (and you certainly don't have to read that list for my program to work).
But they are important - they are what separates "The Essential Guide to Fat Loss" from the vast majority of other weight loss books available to you.
Think About This Real-World Example
Let's say you read in a book that "eating late at night makes you fat".
You'd expect the author to give a reason why that was the case. And they usually do. They give you their theory, their rationale, for why eating late at night makes you fat.
It might be a scientific explanation that invloves how our metabolisms work. Or, depending on the type of book, they might claim it's down to the alignment of the solar system.
But no matter what their theory and no matter how convincing they sound, the ONLY way you can trust that piece of advice is if it's been meticulously tested in a credible, unbiased scientific study (one that's been carried out by someone who has absolutely no affiliation to the author).
Whenever I make a claim or recommendation in "The Essential Guide to Fat Loss" I put at least one number in brackets after it, like this . Those numbers relate to a list of studies at the end of the book that back up my recommendations.
Now, if you were so inclined you could go and look up each study online at a site like www.pubmed.com to double check I haven't just made it up.
Hopefully, you can take a lot of confidence that this program really will work for you. Not because I say it will. Not because I've convinced you with clever marketing and hyped-up claims. But because all the principles have been thoroughly proven to work!
Scientific Studies Used To Back Up The Essential Guide To Fat Loss
These are the studies I used to create the program inside the e-book...
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5. Ma, Y., Bertone, E.R., Stanek, E.J. III, Reed, G.W., Hebert, J.R., Cohen, N.L., Merriam, P.A., Ockene, I.S. (2003). Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158, 85-92
6. Bellisle F, McDevitt R, Prentice AM. (1997). Meal frequency and energy balance. British Journal of Nutrition, 77, S57-70
7. Verboeket-van de Venne, W.P., & Westerterp, K.R. (1993). Frequency of feeding, weight reduction and energy metabolism. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 17, 31-36
8. Verboeket-van de Venne, W.P., & Westerterp, K.R. (1991). Influence of the feeding frequency on nutrient utilization in man: consequences for energy metabolism. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45, 161-169
9. Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S., Kovacs, E.M,, & Melanson, K.J. (2002). Habitual meal frequency and energy intake regulation in partially temporally isolated men. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 102-110
10. Speechly, D.P., Rogers, G.G., & Buffenstein, R. (1999). Acute appetite reduction associated with an increased frequency of eating in obese males. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23, 1151-1159
11. Speechly, D.P., & Buffenstein, R. (1999). Greater appetite control associated with an increased frequency of eating in lean males. Appetite, 33, 285-297
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14. Kant, AK, Schatzkin, A, Ballard-Barbash, R. (1997) Evening eating and subsequent long-term weight change in a national cohort Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 21,407-412
15. de Castro JM. The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):104-11
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17. 4. Bell, E.A., Castellanos, V.H., Pelkman, C.L., Thorwart, M.L., & Rolls, B.J. (1998). Energy density of foods affects energy intake in normal-weight women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67, 412-420
18. Holt, S.H.A., Brand-Miller, J.C., Petocz, P., & Farmakalidis, E. (1995). A satiety index of common foods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 49, 675-690
19. Gray, R., French, S., Robinson, T., & Yeomans, M. (2002). Dissociation of the effects of preload volume and energy content on subjective appetite and food intake. Physiology and Behavior, 76, 57-64
20. Gray RW, French SJ, Robinson TM, Yeomans MR. Increasing preload volume with water reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal. Nutr Neurosci. Feb;6(1):29-37.
21. Astrup A, Ryan L, Grunwald GK, Storgaard M, Saris W, Melanson E, Hill JO. The role of dietary fat in body fatness: evidence from a preliminary meta-analysis of ad libitum low-fat dietary intervention studies. Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83 Suppl 1:S25-32.
22. Forslund, A.H., El-Khoury, A.E., & Olsson, R.M., Sjodin, A.M., Hambraeus, L., & Young, V.R. (1999). Effect of protein intake and physical activity on 24-h pattern and rate of macronutrient utilization. American Journal of Physiology, E39, E964-E976.
23. Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Callahan HS, Meeuws KE, Burden VR, Purnell JQ. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):41-8.
24. 12. Dumesnil, J.G., Turgeon, J., Tremblay, A., Poirier, P., Gilbert, M., Gagnon, L., St-Pierre, S., Garneau, C., Lemieux, I., Pascot, A., Bergeron, J., & Despres, J.P. (2001). Effect of a low-glycaemic index--low-fat--high protein diet on the atherogenic metabolic risk profile of abdominally obese men. British Journal of Nutrition, 86, 557-568
25. Agus, M.S., Swain, J.F., Larson, C.L., Eckert, E.A., & Ludwig, D.S. (2000). Dietary composition and physiologic adaptations to energy restriction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 901-907
26. Whitehead, J.M., McNeill, G., & Smith, J.S. (1996). The effect of protein intake on 24-h energy expenditure during energy restriction. International Journal of Obesity, 20, 727-732
27. 8. Johnston, C.S., Tjonn, S.L., & Swan, P.D. (2004). High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 586-591
28. Layman, D.K., Boileau, R.A., Erickson, D.J., Painter, J.E., Shiue, H., Sather, C., & Christou, D.D. (2003). A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 411-417
29. Layman, D.K., Shiue, H., Sather, C., Erickson, D.J., & Baum, J. (2003). Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 405-410
30. Due, A., Toubro, S., Skov, A.R., & Astrup, A. (2004). Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. International Journal of Obesity, 28, 1283-1290.
31. Skov, A.R., Toubro, S., Ronn, B., Holm, L., & Astrup, A. (1999). Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 23, 528-533
32. McManus, K., Antinoro, .L, & Sacks, F. (2001). A randomized controlled trial of a moderate-fat, low-energy diet compared with a low fat, low-energy diet for weight loss in overweight adults. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 25, 1503-1511
33. University of Maryland Medical enter. 2007. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/omega-6-000317.htm
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36. Tremblay, A., & St-Pierre, S. (1996). The hyperphagic effect of a high-fat diet and alcohol intake persists after control for energy density. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, 479-482
37. Buemann, B., Toubro, S., & Astrup, A. (2002). The effect of wine or beer versus a carbonated soft drink, served at a meal, on ad libitum energy intake. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 1367-1372
38. Siler, S.Q., Neese, R.A., & Hellerstein, M.K. (1999). De novo lipogenesis, lipid kinetics, and whole-body lipid balances in humans after acute alcohol consumption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 928-936.
39. Raben A, Agerholm-Larsen L, Flint A, Holst JJ, Astrup A. (2003). Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 91-100.
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41. Kleiner, S.M. (1999). Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99, 200-206 10. Vom Dahl, S., Hallbrucker, C., Lang, F., Gerok, W., & Haussinger, D. (1991). Regulation of liver cell volume and proteolysis by glucagon and insulin. Biochemical Journal, 278, 771-777
42. Bilz, S., Ninnis, R., & Keller, U. (1999). Effects of hypoosmolality on whole-body lipolysis in man. Metabolism, 48, 472-476
43. Haussinger, D., Roth, E., Lang, F., & Gerok, W. (1993). Cellular hydration state: an important determinant of protein catabolism in health and disease. Lancet, 341, 1330-1332
44. Berneis, K., Ninnis, R., Haussinger, D., & Keller, U. (1999). Effects of hyper- and hypoosmolality on whole body protein and glucose kinetics in humans. American Journal of Physiology, 276, 188-195
45. Boschmann, M., Steiniger, J., Hille, U., Tank, J., Adams, F., Sharma, A.M., Klaus, S., Luft, F.C., & Jordan, J. (2003). Water-induced thermogenesis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 6015-6019
46. Couet C, Delarue J, Ritz P, Antoine JM, Lamisse F (1997). Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults. International Journal of Obesity, 21, 637-643
47. Huffman DM, Michaelson JL, Thomas TR (2004). Chronic supplementation with fish oil increases fat oxidation during exercise in young men. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 7, 48-56
48. Klem, M.L. et al (1997). A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66:239
49. Bryner, R.W., Ullrich, I.H., Sauers, J., Donley, D., Hornsby, G., Kolar, M., & Yeater, R. (1999). Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 18:115-121
50. Geliebter, A., Maher, M.M., Gerace, L., Gutin, B., Heymsfield, S.B., & Hashim, S.A. (1997). Effects of strength or aerobic training on body composition, resting metabolic rate, and peak oxygen consumption in obese dieting subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66:557-563
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