The list of scientific studies at the end of this page won't mean much to you (and you certainly don't have to read that list for my program to work).
But they are important - they are what separates "The Essential Guide to Building Muscle" from the vast majority of other muscle building and weight gain books available to you.
Let's say you read in a book that "eating every 3 hours is essential to building muscle".
You'd expect the author to give a reason why that was the case. And they usually do. They give you their theory, their rationale, for why eating so frequently is essential and it will typically be a "scientific" explanation that invloves how our metabolisms work.
But no matter what their theory and no matter how convincing they sound, the ONLY way you can trust that piece of advice is if it's been meticulously tested in credible, unbiased scientific studies.
Whenever I make a claim or recommendation in "The Essential Guide to Building Muscle" I put at least one number in brackets after it, like this . Those numbers relate to a list of studies at the end of the book that back up my recommendations.
Now, if you were so inclined you could go and look up each study online at a site like www.pubmed.com to double check I haven't just made it up.
Hopefully, you can take a lot of confidence that this program really will work for you. Not because I say it will. Not because I've convinced you with clever marketing and hyped-up claims. But because all the principles have been thoroughly proven to work!
These are the scientific studies I used to create the program...
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6. Kreider, R.B., Ferreira, M., Wilson, M., Grindstaff, P., Plisk, S., Reinardy, J., Cantler, E., & Almada, A.L. (1998). Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 73-82
16. Tipton, K.D., Elliott, T.A., Cree, M.G., Aarsland, A.A., Sanford, A.P., & Wolfe, R.R. (2007). Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise. American Journal of Physiology, 292, E71-E76
17. Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, Wolfe RR (2001). Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281: E197�E206
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20. Gray, R., French, S., Robinson, T., & Yeomans, M. (2002). Dissociation of the effects of preload volume and energy content on subjective appetite and food intake. Physiology and Behavior, 76, 57-64
21. Gray RW, French SJ, Robinson TM, Yeomans MR. Increasing preload volume with water reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal. Nutr Neurosci. Feb;6(1):29-37.
22. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). The National Academies Press.
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24. Layman, D.K., Shiue, H., Sather, C., Erickson, D.J., & Baum, J. (2003). Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 405-410
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31. Moore, D.R., Del Bel, N.C., Nizi, K.I., Hartman, J.W., Tang, J.E., Armstrong, D., & Phillips, S.M. (2007). Resistance training reduces fasted- and fed-state leucine turnover and increases dietary nitrogen retention in previously untrained young men. Journal of Nutrition, 137, 985-991
32. Rozenek, R., Ward, P., Long, S., & Garhammer, J. (2002). Effects of high-calorie supplements on body composition and muscular strength following resistance training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 340-347
33. Candow, D.G., Burke, N.C., Smith-Palmer, T., & Burke, D.G. (2006). Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16, 233-244
34. Cribb, P.J., Williams, A.D., Stathis, C.G., Carey, M.F., & Hayes, A. (2007). Effects of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 298-307
35. Burke, D.G., Chilibeck, P.D., Davidson, K.S., Candow, D.G., Farthing, J., & Smith-Palmer, T. (2001). The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 11, 349-364
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44 Arnal, M.A., Mosoni, L., Boirie, Y., Houlier, M.L., Morin, L., Verdier, E., Ritz, P., Antoine, J.M., Prugnaud, .J, Beaufrere, B., & Mirand, P.P. (1999). Protein pulse feeding improves protein retention in elderly women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 1202-1208
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47. Borsheim, E., Cree, M.G., Tipton, K.D., Elliott, T.A., Aarsland, A., & Wolfe, R.R. (2004). Effect of carbohydrate intake on net muscle protein synthesis during recovery from resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 674-678
48. Thyfault, J.P., Carper, M.J., Richmond, S.R., Hulver, M.W., & Potteiger, J.A. (2004). Effects of liquid carbohydrate ingestion on markers of anabolism following high-intensity resistance exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18, 174-179
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52. Levenhagen, D.K., Carr, C., Carlson, M.G., Maron, D.J., Borel, M.J., & Flakoll, P.J. (2002). Postexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 828-837
53. Doi, T., Matsuo, T., Sugawara, M., Matsumoto, K., Minehira, K., Hamada, K., Okamura, K., & Suzuki, M. (2001). New approach for weight reduction by a combination of diet, light resistance exercise and the timing of ingesting a protein supplement. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 10, 226-232
54. Flakoll, P.J., Judy, T., Flinn, K., Carr, C., & Flinn, S. (2004). Postexercise protein supplementation improves health and muscle soreness during basic military training in Marine recruits. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 951-956
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59. Wilkinson, S.B., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Macdonald, M.J., Macdonald, J.R., Armstrong, D., & Phillips, S.M. (2007). Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 1031-1040
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