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Sporting Excellence #007 => July 2005
July 06, 2005
JULY 2005

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TABLE OF CONTENTS - JULY 2005

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Here's the contents in brief for this issue of Sporting Excellence

1. How Vibration Training Can Increase Strength & Power

2. NEWS: Soccer Training E-Book to Launch in 2 Weeks

3. High Intensity Exercise and How It Affects the Immune System

4. Yet More Evidence Carbohydrate Drinks Improve Athletic Performance

5. Can A Cooling Vest Increase Endurance Performance?

6. 18 Complete Speed Training Programs From The Top Trainers in The World

7. New Weight Lifting Bar Increases Grip Strength

8. How Important is The Glycemic Index to Athletic Performance

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1. How Vibration Training Can Increase Strength & Power

It seems that vibration may have a positive effect on both strength and power perfromance in athletes. Although there is still a lack of strictly controlled trials into vibration training, two recent research reviews (1,2) suggest that exposure to whole-body vibration has resulted in a significant improvement in power output in the postvibratory period. It has also been demonstrated to induce significant changes in the resting hormonal profiles of men. The benefits seem to be related to vibration characteristics (method of application, amplitude and frequency). Frequency should be in the range of 30-50 Hz but optimal amplitude is less clear.

A 2004 study (3) examined strength and body composition followng 24 weeks of vibratrion training in 48 females. One group completed a series of unoaded leg press and leg extension exercises while standing on a vibration platform. The second performed the same exercises with loads ranging from 8 to 20 repetition maximum. Although no changes in body fat percentage were found, whole body vibration alone produced the same strength gains as regular resistance and cardiovascular training.

Other studies (4,5,6,7) have also noted the positive effect of vibration training whcih could, at the very least, lead to improved warm up protocols in sports requiring high levels of strength and power.

1. Sports Med. 2005;35(1):23-41. The use of vibration training to enhance muscle strength and power. Luo J, McNamara B, Moran K.

2. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 May;19(2):459-66. Vibration training: an overview of the area, training consequences, and future considerations. Jordan MJ, Norris SR, Smith DJ, Herzog W.

3. Int J Sports Med. 2004 Jan;25(1):1-5. Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration training on body composition and muscle strength in untrained females. Roelants M, Delecluse C, Goris M, Verschueren S.

4. J Sports Sci. 1994 Dec;12(6):561-6. Effect of vibratory stimulation training on maximal force and flexibility. Issurin VB, Liebermann DG, Tenenbaum G.

5. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Jun;52(6):901-8. Whole-body-vibration training increases knee-extension strength and speed of movement in older women. Roelants M, Delecluse C, Verschueren SM.

6. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000 Apr;81(6):449-54. Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men. Bosco C, Iacovelli M, Tsarpela O, Cardinale M, Bonifazi M, Tihanyi J, Viru M, De Lorenzo A, Viru A.

7. J Bone Miner Res. 2004 Mar;19(3):352-9. Epub 2003 Dec 22. Related Articles, Links Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study. Verschueren SM, Roelants M, Delecluse C, Swinnen S, Vanderschueren D, Boonen S.

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2. NEWS: Soccer Training E-Book to Launch in 2 Weeks

A big thank you to all those who filled out the online questionnaire for a new soccer conditioning e-book that is due to launch in 2 weeks time. The feedback was superb and the response overwhelming. I've taken everyone's comments into consideration and there are many features added to the book that are a direct result of that feedback. If you DID fill out the questionnaire I'll be e-mailing you shortly with download instructions.

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3. High Intensity Exercise and How It Affects the Immune System

High intensity exercise such as heavy resistance training can stimulate an immune system response sismilar to surgery, trauma, burns and sepsis. An increase in white blood cells called lymphocytosis (which helps fight infection) can occur for up to 3 hours after exercise. In particular lymphocyctes and monocyctes (two types of white blood cells) increase significantly.

Studies have shown that shorter, more intense bouts of activity lead to a more marked immune response. Even when training volume and intensity is kept the same, reducing rest periods between sets from 3 minutes to 1 minute has a greater impact on white blood cell count. From a health perspective is this response positive or negative? Most research shows that despite the sudden and sharp increase in whitel blood cells, the recovery is rapid. Moreover, leukocytosis can occur following exercise without an increase in stress hormones such as cortisol.

However, a 2002 study by Dimitriou et al. found that heavy exercise in the very early morning may be more immuosuppressive than exercising in the afternoon. This is due to a natural increase in cortisol at that time and low levels of IgA (the body's first line of defence against upper respiratory infection).

Sao Paulo Med J. 2003 Jan 2;121(1):9-14. Epub 2003 Jul 4. Effects of three different types of exercise on blood leukocyte count during and following exercise. Natale VM, Brenner IK, Moldoveanu AI, Vasiliou P, Shek P, Shephard RJ.

J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Feb;19(1):16-22. Rest-interval length affects leukocyte levels during heavy resistance exercise. Mayhew DL, Thyfault JP, Koch AJ.

J Strength Cond Res. 2004 May;18(2):266-71. Leukocytosis occurs in response to resistance exercise in men. Simonson SR, Jackson CG.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;73(1-2):93-7. The effects of plasma cortisol elevation on total and differential leukocyte counts in response to heavy-resistance exercise. Kraemer WJ, Clemson A, Triplett NT, Bush JA, Newton RU, Lynch JM.

British Journal of Sports Medicine Dimitriou J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2003 Jan-Mar;15(1):35-7. Effects of intensity and duration of exercise on differential leucocyte count.

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4. Yet More Evidence Carbohydrate Drinks Improve Athletic Performance

A recent study into the effect of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks on performance adds further confirmation that they can significantly improve performance. Running at 70% VO2max until exhaustion subjects lasted 62 minutes on average without supplementation and 94 minutes with supplementation -- a 51% improvement. Supplmentation consisted of a 100mls of 5% carbohydrate solution ingested every 15 minutes. 100mls of a 12% solution was ingested 5 minutes post-test and every 5 minutes for 20 minutes.

Recorded at 10 minute intervals blood lactate levels were significantly lower following supplementation. Removal of lactic acid 10-20 minutes post exercise was also considerably improved. Heart rate also reduced more rapidly during the first 3 minutes of recovery in the supplemented group. No differences between the groups were seen in blood glucose levels during exercise and up to 10 minutes into recovery. However, at 20 minutes post recovery, supplementation lead to subjects maintaining higher levels of blood sugar.

Supplementary effect of carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on sports performance, lactate removal & cardiovascular response of athletes. Khanna GL, Manna I. Indian J Med Res. 2005 May;121(5):665-9

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5. Can A Cooling Vest Increase Endurance Performance?

Wearing an ice cooling jacket during prolonged exercise in a warm environment improves performance according to a recent study (1). Nine trained athletes cycled for 60 minutes at 60% VO2max and then until exhaustion at 80% VO2max. Temperature was set at 32 degrees with a 70-80% relative humidity. Wearing a cooling jacket during the test increased endurance performance time - which further increased when combined with water intake. Intersetingly, the subjects' body temperature was no cooler at the end of the test. Examiners believe that the critical limiting temperature is offset for longer with the use of an ice vest.

A similar study (2) investigated whether a cooling vest worn only during an active warm-up enhanced 5-km run time in the heat. Seventeen competitive runners completed two simulated 5-km runs after a 38 minute active warm-up during which they wore either a T-shirt or a vest filled with ice in a hot, humid environment (32C, 50% relative humidity).

Wearing the cooling vest during warm-up significantly blunted increases in body temperature, heart rate and perceived discomfort. At the start of the 5-km run mean skin temperature was 1.8 degrees C lower and heart rate averaged 11 beats/min lower. Most of these differences were eliminated during the first 3.2 km of the run and these variables were no different at the end.

However performance time improved by an average of 13 seconds after wearing the vest, with a faster pace most evident during the last two-thirds of the run. Other studies have also found that pre-exercise cooling can positively affect performance (3,4,5)

1. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Feb;19(1):122-8. Wearing a cooling jacket during exercise reduces thermal strain and improves endurance exercise performance in a warm environment. Hasegawa H, Takatori T, Komura T, Yamasaki M.

2. J Appl Physiol. 2004 May;96(5):1867-74. Epub 2003 Dec 29. Cooling vest worn during active warm-up improves 5-km run performance in the heat. Arngrimsson SA, Petitt DS, Stueck MG, Jorgensen DK, Cureton KJ.

3. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: 943-949, 1997 Improved running performance in hot humid conditions following whole body precooling. Booth J, Marino F, and Ward JJ.

4. J Appl Physiol 86: 1032-1039, 1999 Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat. Gonzalez-Alonso J, Teller C, Andersen SL, Jensen FB, Hyldig T, and Nielsen B.

5. J Appl Physiol 79: 1971-1976, 1995. Exercise duration and thermoregulatory responses after whole body precooling. Lee DT and Haymes EM.

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6. 18 Complete Speed Training Programs From The Top Trainers in The World

It's not just sprinters who have to be fast to excel in their sport...

Most athletes (whether they play football, soccer, baskeball, baseball, tennis, hockey and so on) must develop speed, agility and quickness if they want to stand out. There's more than one way to become fast -- and contrary to popular belief genetics is by no means the be all and end all. With the right mix of strength training, plyometrics, SAQ drills and technique coaching, anyone can develop blazing speed and acceleration.

A new resource called "Speed Experts" makes it easy for sportsmen and women to build lightning like pace. It lays bare 18 precise speed training programs complete with exact sets, reps and exercise descriptions. Each 30-day program has been carefully crafted by a different conditioning expert (all of whom work with elite athletes). Finding and choosing one that fits your own style and needs is easy and guarantees to make you quick.

As I trainer I've used this resource on many occasions. It allows me to simply cherry-pick a program that best fits my client's own circumstances and one that I know will achieve results. If you're an athlete and you want to become as fast as you can "Speed Experts" comes highly recommended...

Click here for more information...

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7. New Weight Lifting Bar Increases Grip Strength

Athletes who train with relatively high loads can often lift more than their grip will hold. To compensate many use wrist straps for extra support and grip strength. A new shaped lifting bar called the Tri-Bar has recently been developed. It's the same weight and length as a standard Olympic bar, the only difference is the shape. Rather than having a round cross-section it is formed like a triangle with rounded edges.

Theoretically the shape should improve gripping comfort and increase isometric muscular endurance. A recent study in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research found that static strength endurance did increase when the Tri-Bar was used.

Thirty two adults were asked to perform a straight arm hang until failure on both a regular, round bar and the triangular bar. Average hang time for the Tri-Bar was 107.6 seconds compared to 95.4 seconds for the round bar. This piece of equipment may be useful for exercises that can incorporate a lot of weight and place a high emphasis on grip strength. Examples include dead lifts, power cleans, bent over rows and lat pull downs.

J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Nov;18(4):782-6. An investigation of the tri-bar gripping system on isometric muscular endurance. Drury DG, Faggiono H, Stuempfle KJ.

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8. How Important is The Glycemic Index to Athletic Performance

It's well known that carbohydrate ingestion during endurance events can offset fatigue and improve performance. The Glycemic Index (GI) measures by how much a particular food raises blood sugar levels over a 2-hour period compared to pure glucose.

For example, a piece of food with a GI score of 45 means that it raises blood sugar 45% as much as pure glucose in that 2- hour period. It has been suggested that foods with a low glycemic index are more preferable before and during the event.

Studies have shown that consuming high-glycemic foods within an hour of exercise can actually lower blood glucose by eliciting an "overshoot" of insulin. A recent study (1) measured the effect of two types of carbohydrate gels (one high GI and low GI) on long distance cycling compared to a placebo. Each cyclist completed three randomised, double blind, crossover rides, and ingested 15 g of low GI (honey; GI = 35) and high GI (dextrose; GI = 100) carbohydrate every 16 km for 64 km.

Results showed that both carbohydrate trials proved faster than the placebo. However, there was no difference between taking a high GI gel and low GI gel. This is in contrast to other studies that have found low to moderate GI foods to have a greater ergogenic effect (2,3,4,5)

1. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Aug;18(3):466-72. Low vs. high glycemic index carbohydrate gel ingestion during simulated 64-km cycling time trial performance. Earnest CP, Lancaster SL, Rasmussen CJ, Kerksick CM, Lucia A, Greenwood MC, Almada AL, Cowan PA, Kreider RB.

2. Metabolism. 2001 Jul;50(7):849-55. Effects of moderate and high glycemic index meals on metabolism and exercise performance. Kirwan JP, Cyr-Campbell D, Campbell WW, Scheiber J, Evans WJ.

3. Int J Sports Med. 1991 Apr;12(2):180-6. Carbohydrate feeding before exercise: effect of glycemic index. Thomas DE, Brotherhood JR, Brand JC.

4. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Jan;31(1):164-70. Pre-exercise carbohydrate meals: application of glycemic index. DeMarco HM, Sucher KP, Cisar CJ, Butterfield GE.

5. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Mar;10(1):51-61. The effect of glycemic index on plasma glucose and lactate levels during incremental exercise. Stannard SR, Constantini NW, Miller JC.

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I hope you enjoyed this issue of Sporting Excellence. If you DID...

I always appreciate feedback -- good and bad!

And if you have any questions regarding this issue's content (or sports training in general) I can be contacted at:

http://www.sport-fitness-

advisor.com/contactus.html

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